Câu trực tiếp và gián tiếp trong tiếng anh : Cấu trúc , cách chuyển đổi và bài tập câu trực tiếp và gián tiếp trong tiếng anh.. (Bài giảng về câu trực tiếp gián tiếp trong tiếng anh )
Học Thử Ngay Tại Đây
Câu trực tiếp là gì và cấu trúc câu trực tiếp
Là các câu nói diễn tả chính xác từ ngữ của người nói dùng . Là các câu nói bình thường trong giao tiếp. Thường đặc trong dấu ngoặc “”
Ví dụ : “Shall I help you with the exercises?” he said.
Câu gián tiếp là gì và cấu trúc câu gián tiếp :
Câu gián tiếp hay gọi là câu tường thuật là cách nói khi chúng ta muốn kể lại hay tường thuật lại cho ai đó nghe về những gì người khác nói
Ví dụ :
He said that he had learnt english for 3 years.
Đây là cách nói gián tiếp hay tường thuật từ câu nói trực tiếp : He said : “I’ve learnt english for 3 years
(Câu trực tiếp và gián tiếp trong tiếng anh)
Cách chuyển đổi câu trực tiếp thành gián tiếp trong tiếng anh
2.1. Quy tắc chuyển từ lối nói trực tiếp sang gián tiếp: lùi một thời
Simple present -> simple pastPresent progressive -> past progressivePresent perfect -> past perfectSimple past -> past perfect Past progressive -> past perfect progressiveSimple future -> would + VCan/may/must -> could /might/had to
2.2. Các chuyển đổi khác:
– Đại từ nhân xưng:
I -> he/sheWe -> theyYou -> I/ we(tân ngữ và tính từ sở hữu chuyển theo nhân xưng chủ ngữ)
– Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn:
Here -> thereThis -> thatthese -> those
– Trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian:
Today -> that dayTomorrow -> the next day/ the following dayYesterday -> the day before/ the previous dayLast week -> the week before/ the previous weekthe day after tomorrow -> in 2 days’ timethe day before yesterday -> two days Tanggiap.net -> thenAgo -> before
2.3. Các trường hợp không đổi thời
– Sự thật, sự việc luôn luôn đúng:
“the earth moves round the sun” he said.-> He said that the earth moves round the sun.
– Câu điều kiện loại II và III:
“If I were you, I would leave here” he said.-> He said that if he were me, he would leave there.
– Wish + past simple/ past perfect:
“I wish I lived in Da Nang”, he said.-> He said he wished he lived in Da Nang.
– Cấu trúc “it’s time somebody did something”:
“It’s time he woke up”, she said.-> She said it was time he woke up.
– Would/ should/ ought to/ had better/ used to không chuyển:
“ You’d better work hard” he said-> He said that I had better work hard.
2.4. Các cách chuyển đổi cơ bảnA. Say that + a statement -> agree (đồng ý), refuse (từ chối), offer (đề nghị), promise (hứa), threaten + the infinitive (dọa)
“All right, I’ll help you” he said.-> He agreed to help me.“ Oh, no, I won’t come to your party”, he said.-> He refused to come to my party.“I’ll look for the cat for you tomorrow if you like” he said.-> He offered to look after the cat for me the next day if I liked.“I’ll visit your parents when I arrive there”, he said-> He promised to visit my parents when he arrived there.“I’ll sell the TV set if you keep on watching it all day”, said the father-> the father threatened to sell the TV set if he kept on watching it all day
- Say that + a statement -> accuse …of (buộc tội), admit (thừa nhận), apologise for (xin lỗi), deny (từ chối), insist on + V-ing (khăng khăng)
“You stole the jewels” said the inspector -> the inspector accused her of stealing the jewels.“I’ve made the wall dirty” said one student.-> One student admitted making the wall dirty.“I’m sorry I’m late” she said.-> She apologized for being late.“No, we didn’t enter the garden” said the boy.-> the boy denied entering my garden. “Certainly, I’ll buy that car for you”, said he.-> He insisted on buying me that car.
- Say to somebody + a statement -> told somebody + that + clause
“I’ve finished all my homework”, he said to me.-> He told me that he had finished all his homework.
- Say + a statement -> said that + clause
“I’m going to Hanoi tomorrow”, he said.-> He said that he was going to Hanoi the next day.
- Statement with command, request, advice, invitation, offer -> advise, ask, beg, encourage, invite, order, tell, warn, remind…
“You’d better hurry”, he said.-> He advised me to hurry.“Post the letter for me, will you?”he said.-> He asked me to post the letter for him.“Make another try, please”, he said.-> He encouraged me to make another try“Don’t drive too fast”, he said.-> He warned me not to drive too fast.“Remember to close the door”, he said.-> He reminded me to close the door.“Don’t forget to come at 6 a.m tomorrow”, he said.-> He reminded to come at 6 a.m the next day.
- Questions in indirect speech
– Thời, đại từ, tính từ sở hữu, trạng từ chuyển như ở câu tường thuật.- Yes-no questions -> asked/wanted to know if/whether
“Are you absent from your classes today?” he asked.-> He asked/wanted to know if I was absent from my classes that day.
– Wh-questions -> asked/wanted to know + question word + clause.
“Where do you often meet your friends?” she said.-> She asked where I often met my friends.
- Questions with “shall I…”-> 4 loại sau:
About future event (sự kiện trong tương lai)
“Shall we attend the meeting tomorrow”, she said.->She asked if they would attend the meeting the next day
Request for instruction or advice (Lời hướng dẫn hoặc lời khuyên)
“Shall I read it, mother?” ha said.-> He asked his mother if he should read it.
Offer to do something
“Shall we bring you some new books?” she said.-> She offered to bring me some new books.
Suggest to do something
“Shall we go to the cinema tonight”, he said.-> He suggested going to the cinema that night.
- Questions with “Will you, would you, could you…?” (yêu cầu, đề nghị, mời)-> offer, invite, order, ask, told.
“ Will you come to my party tomorrow?” he said.-> He invited me to come to his party the next day.“Could you get ready at 6p.m tonight?” he said.-> He told/asked me to get ready at 6p.m that night.“Would you like some cigarettes?” he said.-> He offered me some cigarettes.“Will you shut your mouth?” he said.-> He ordered me to shut my mouth.
- Let’s do…-> suggest + V-ing (nếu bao gồm cả người nói thực hiện hành động)Let’s do…-> suggest + that S should do…(có thể bao gồm hoặc không bao gồm người nói thực hiện hành động)
“Let’s go to the cinema tonight”, he said.-> He suggested going to the cinema that night. (anh ta cũng đi)-> He suggested that they should go to the cinema that night
- Yes, let’s do…-> agreeNo, let’s not do… -> be against the idea.
“Let’s eat out tonight” said the mother.“Yes, let’s” said the son.“No, let’s not” said the father.-> the mother suggested eating out that night and the son agreed but the father was against the idea.
- Must -> had to
“I must finish my work tomorrow”, he said.-> He said that he had to finish his work the next day.“Must you go soon?” she said.-> He asked if I had to go soon.
- Câu cảm thán trong lời nói gián tiếp
What + a + noun! /how + adj -> said that + clause -> gave an exclamation of delight (vui mừng, tán thưởng), disgust (kinh tởm), honor (sợ), surprise (ngạc nhiên)
“How beautiful the picture is”, he said.-> He said that the picture was beautiful-> He gave an exclamation of delight.“What a dirty kitchen!” she said.-> She said that the kitchen was dirty.-> She gave an exclamation of disgust.“How wonderful”, he said.-> He said that it was wonderful.-> He gave an exclamation of surprise.
“Yes/no” -> subject + trợ động từ
“Have you finished your homework?”he said“Yes”, she said-> He asked her if she had finished her homework and she said she had.“Are you ready for the exam?” he said.“No”, she said.-> He asked if she was ready for the exam and she said she wasn’t.
- “Thank”-> subject + thanked
“Would you like to have dinner with me tonight?”, he said. “thank you, I’d love to” she said.-> He invited her to have dinner with him that night. She thanked him and said she would love to.“Good luck”, he said -> he wished me luck.“Congratulation!”, he said -> he congratulated me.
Bài tập câu trực tiếp gián tiếp
Bài tập: Chuyển những câu sau sang gián tiếp.
- “Shall I help you with the exercises?” he said.2. “Shall we give him a birthday cake?” he said.3. “Could I leave early on Friday?” he said.4. “Where shall we meet tonight?” she said.5. “Will you have a drink?” he said.6. “How far is it from here to college?” he said.7. “Do you often have breakfast at 6.30 a.m?” he said8. “Don’t swim too far, boys” she said.9. “Do come in and have a drink” he said.10. “Remember to wake me up” she said.11. “If I were you, I would learn English”, she said.12. “Why don’t we go camping this Sunday?” he said.13. “Would you like to come to my birthday party next Sunday?” she said.14. “Let’s have a talk on the new film”, he said.15. “ Shall I do the cleaning up for you?” he said.16. “What a clever boy!” she said.17. “How ugly!” he said.
Trên đây là tổng hợp toàn bộ kiến thức cơ bản về câu gián tiếp trực tiếp trong tiếng anh.
Đây là một trong những cấu trúc câu thường dùng trong giao tiếp tiếng anh. Hãy cố gắng thuộc lòng nó nhé.
– Nếu thấy bài viết này hay thì like và chia sẽ nhé (y) ( Tham khảo thêm phương pháp học tiếng anh giao tiếp đàm thoại qua phim hiệu quả ) (Giao diện trang web học tiếng anh qua phim hiệu quả Tanggiap.net ) (Video một đoạn phim song ngữ trên website Tanggiap.net )
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